Belarusian Art of the 20th century
The fund of the modern Belarusian art comprises nearly 11 thousand works of painting, graphics, sculpture, decorative-applied art of the 19- early 20th centuries - nearly half of the whole collecton of the museum. Basically collection's formation occurred at the postwar years, but it includes many works from Belarusian state museum and State art gallery in Minsk. It goes without saying that this fund, together with the collection of the sacral Belarusian art, unique, the fullest among collections of the Belarusian art in the world, documents of the national artistic-graphic interpreting of the Universe.
The fund of the modern Belarusian painting at present comprises more than three thousand works of more than 330 artists. Among them there are several works of the 19th century - rare for our country canvases of Ya. Damel, K. Rusetsky, V. Slendinsky. The following period, late 19- early 20th centuries, is presented by the pictures of L. Alperovich, Yu. Pen, Ya. Kruger, Z. Lensky. Moreover, creative activity of the first artists is represented completely enough to judge about evolution of these artists and - wider - about number of aspects of art of that time.
Painting of the 1920-s-1930-s, as well as the prerevolutionary time, is presented more or less fragmentary due to disastrous events of the first half of the 20th century, which ruined not only people, but also phenomenons of culture. However, our museum possesses the collection of the most interesting unique works - evidences both of art, and of history. These are canvases of M. Filippovich and M. Stanyuta, M. Kunin and M. Slepyan, V. Kudrevich and I. Milchin, G. Dokalskaya and A. Golubkina, M. Sevruk and P. Sergiyevich, N. Voronov and A. Mozolev, E. Tikhanovich and M. Akselrod, A. Shevchenko and A. Kastelyansky. The range - from tiny studies of N. Tarasikov to monumentally-decorative panel of I.Akhremchik, V.Volkov, A. Debler, which were once exhibited at the All-union agricultural exhibition in Moscow; from fantastic-cosmic compositions of I. Drozdovich to large-scale canvases of the socialist realism by N. Pashkevich and M. Monoszon.
But, naturally, Belarusian painting of the second half of the 20th century is presented in the museum most fully. The nature of the collection allows us to speak of monographic nature of the collection of the outstanding Belarusian artists of the 1950-s-1980-s. Art of I. Akhremchik, V. Volkov, V. Tsvirko, N. Voronov, E. Zaytsev, M. Dantsig, A. Gugel, R. Kudrevich, V. Zholtok, A. Shibnev, V. Gromyko, V. Stelmashonok, Vaschenko, P. Maslenikov, A. Kischenko, Ya. Rozdzyalovskaya, A. Barkhatkov, N. Zalozny, A. Malishevsky, L. Schemelev and the most known Belarusian artist, Academician, Hero of Belarus - M. Savitsky is presented most comprehensively. Works of painters, formed on the border of 1960-s-1970-s occupy a significant place: I. Basov, Z. Litvinova, V. Sumarev, B. Kazakov, S. Katkova, A. Marochkin, M. Rogalevich; also artists, who came in art in the 1970-s-1980-s: N. Buschik, A. Kuznetsov, N. Seleschuk, Skripnichenko, V. Tovstik, V. Olshevsky, A. Ksendzov, V. Kozhukh, F. Yanushkevich and others.
Last years our collection could not grow with the former intensity, but all the same it was enriched by works, although single, of the new generation of artists - I. Kashkurevich, N. Zaloznaya, I. Tishin, A. Zadorin, A. Grishkevich, S. Rimashevsky, I. Barkhatkov, V. Shkarubo and others.
It can be found more than two thousand works of printed and nearly five thousand of original graphics of the 20th century in the funds of the museum .
The significant interest in the section of graphics of the late 19- early 20th centuries present works of L. Alperovich, Yu. Pen, Ya. Kruger, I. Drozdovich, A. Brazer, K. Gedda, S. Kovrovsky, M. Sevruk, P. Sergiyevich, V. Volkov, P. Gutkovsky, Zmudzinsky, as pupils of Petersburg, Odessa, Vilno, Moscow, Paris, Vitebsk, Warsaw artistic schools. The 1920-s are presented by compositions and portraits of A. Akhol-Valo, M. Akselrod, A. Astapovich, Z. Gorbovets, M. Monoszon, bookplates of P. Gutkovsky, E. Minin, S. Yudovin, illustrations of M. Filippovich. The 1930-s - by creative activity of A. Tychina, B. Malkin, N. Pashkevich, I. Gembitsky. There are works of the first graduates of the graphic branch of Vitebsk artistic technical school in our collection.
The Period of the Great Patriotic war includes more than two hundred works, in which it is possible to track the chronology of the subject, commencing from refugees from native places and finishing by inscriptions on Reichstag. These are sheets of S. Andrukhovich, Brzhozovsky, D. Genin, I. Davidovich, M. Zhitnitsky, F. Doroshevich, A. Krol, E. Zaytsev, L. Leytman, N. Tarasikov, S. Romanov, B.Zvinogrodsky, S. Katkov, L. Ran.
The significant interest presents works of the second half of the 20th century- portraits of L. Ran, A. Zaytsev, S. Gerus, illustrations of V. Savich and N. Seleschuk, watercolors of Poplavsky, F. Gumen, V. Pavlovets, L. Marchenko, Shutov, N. Ovchinnikova. Major part of the fund forms illustrations to Belarusian publishings of V. and E. Tihanovichs, satirical graphics of L. Churko, A. Churkin, M. Lisovsky, posters of M. Belsky, E. Taras, T. Ignatenko, L. Krol, P. Kalinin, L. Zamakh, N. Stoma, V. Krukovsky and others. In the fund there are not only works of artists of graphics, but also painters and sculptors. It was renewed by drawings and watercolors of N. Gusev, V. Volkov, V. Stelmashonok, M. Romanyuk, Ya. Rozdzyalovskaya, Z. Litvinova, V. Tsvirko, V. Sakhnenko, V. Khmyznikov, L. Schemelyov, G. Tikhanovich, G. Buralkin.
At postwar years printed graphics reaches its highest artistic level: in 1953 its work begins printing workshop in the theatrical-artistic institute. The funds of the National Art Museum of the Republic of Belarus has degree works of the graduates of the graphics branch of the 1959-1966-s L. Asetsky, G. Loyko, G. Denisov, I. Nemogay, I. Romanovsky, V. Tkachuk, K. Tikhonov, G.Vitkovsky, F. Vykhodtsev, Yu. Tyshkevich, P. Lysenko, V. Egorov, V. Kander, E. Agunovich. In the 1970-1980-s at the all-union and international exhibition of books the high estimation has got creative activity of People's artists of Belarus A. Kashkurevich, G. Poplavsky, V. Sharangovich, Honoured artists of Belarus A. Posledovich, N. Poplavskaya, S. Volkov, artists M. and V. Basalygo, Yu. and A. Zaytsevs, whose works are presented in the collection of the museum. Among the largest and most recognized works of the Belarusian printed graphics of the 20th century in our collection it is possible to name such series as "City and People", illustrations to "Faust" by A. Kashkurevich, series "Flaxes of Braslavschina" by G. Poplavsky, "Monuments of Architecture of Belarus" by V. Basalygo, "Memories of the Burned Villages" by V. Sharangovich, "Square of Chernobyl" by L. Asetsky, still lifes of A. Posledovich, illustrations of B. Zaborov to "Meek" by F. Dostoevsky, "Legends of Ruzhany" by E. Los, "Brest Hero-Fortress" by P. Durchin, "Belarusian Proverbs" by E. Busel, etchings of the 1990-s of V. Baranov, V. Vishnevsky, M. Borzdyko, L. Zhuravovich.
The fund of the Belarusian sculpture is comparatively small in comparison with other Belarusian collections. At present-day itaccounts for more than 680 exhibits. Forming of the fund has began in 1939 and its bloom was reached in the 1970-s. Chronological borders of the fund can be packed in a century. The earliest work - is a gypsum medal by M. Kerzin "Fertility" 1913-1914-s. General nature and particularity of the fund - is that the collection on 80% consists of the works of the 1950-s-1980-s.
Collection of the Belarusian sculpture is presented by 112 authors. It is eight generations of artists-sculptors. The oldest of them: M. Kerzin, I. Drozdovich, A. Brazer, A. Grube, M. Aizenshtadt. Their works - unique exhibits of our museum.
The basis of the collection forms the creative activity of the seven classics of the Belarusian sculpture, who are most fully presented in our collection: A. Bembel, Z. Azgur, A. Glebov, S. Selikhanov, S. Vakar, Muromtsev, A. Anikeychik. Works of the enumerated artists are different in time of their creation, subjects, images, genres and enable us to track the evolution of their creative activity.
The collection presents other sculptors as well, belonging to different generations and different artistic directions in the history of the Belarusian sculpture: A. Zaspitsky, N. Kondratiyev, L. Gumilevsky, I. Misko, N. Yakovenko, V. Gross, V. Letun, A. Shaternik, L. Davidenko, V. Slobodchikov, S. Gorbunova, A. Bochkarev, E. Astafiyev, A. Finsky, A. Metlitsky and others. Creative activities of these artists together with others form picture of changes and trends in the art of the second half of the 20th century.
Recently works of the artists of the generation of the 1990-s appeared in our collection - V. Yanushkevich, S. Gumilevsky, O. Varvashenya, K. Selikhanov.
The Fund of the decorative-applied art of Belarus consists of two sections: industrial and traditional art. The fund began to be formed at the end 1940-s and has reflected the complex processes of the shaping the national school of the decorative-applied creative activity.
At present, collection of the industrial decorative-applied art includes nearly 900 works of the 20th century, different in material and technics.
The most significant section of the collection- is a collection of the decorative glass, which includes 366 works of the artists and masters of the two the oldest artistic glasswares - "Neman" (Berezovka, Lida district, Grodno region) and crystal plant named after F. Dzerzhinsky (Borisov, Minsk region). There are several samples of the products of the late 1930-s-1950-s. Among these products are: vases, plates, dishes. The large part of the collection presents art of the artists of the experimental-creative laboratories, opened at the glass enterprises at the beginning of the 1960-s.
The collection most consecutively reflects creative activity of several generations of the "Neman" plant artists. Forming of unique style of "Neman" glass is connected with names of V. Murakhver, L. Myagkova, V. Dzivinskaya, V. Zhokhov, S. Raudvee, K. Vaks, T. Malysheva, O. Sazykina, A. Anischik, M. Pyukke, G. Sidorevich, V. Samokhvalov.
High decorative culture, technical skill is specific for works of the Borisov glassware - A. Abramova, G. Isayevich, V. Prokofiyev. P. Artemov, T. Artemova, R. Klimkovich.
From the 1960-s, with the beginning of rebirth of art of smooth carpet weaving, collection of the Belarusian espalier was formed in the museum. This type of an applied creative activity in some mass-media is wrongly named as tapestry. The collection of the espaliers is small in size. It includes only 50 works of the 1960-1990-s. The masters of the Belarusian espalier made the major part of work for the public interior. Machine-madeworks of A. Beltyukova, A. Kischenko, O. Gridina, N. Sukhoverhova, L. Piatrul, A. Yuzeyeva, V. Krivosheyeva, L. Puteyko, T. Khatsanovich-Darbinyan, A. Nepochelovich, G. Sivertseva, T. and Yu. Rudenko, L. Gustova are noted by a stylistic variety, wealth and expressiveness of the figurative decision.
New phenomena in the artistic life of Belarus of the 20th century became production of the artistic porcelain. Works of the artists of Minsk porcelain plant of the 1960-1990-s are presented in the collection of the decorative-applied art. Creative activities of Kirilenko, V. Gavrilov, L. Bogdanov, V. Leontovich, A. Litvinenko, V. Danchuk, A. Fedus, I. Alisevich unite traditions of the classical heritage, public culture, experience of the modern ceramic art. Creation of their own creative concept, quest for a new style of porcelain is reflected in the products of the artists of Dobrush porcelain plant M. Gatalsky, V. and L. Kovalchuks.
The collection of the Belarusian ceramics of the second half of the 20th century is rather small by amount of the exhibits. 130 products of the 1960-1990-s allow us to track development of only separate directions in this type of art.
Collections of the traditional art of Belarus present the oldest types of folk crafts: weaving, ceramics, straw wickerwork, wooden carving. The large part of the collection is exhibited in the constant exhibition of the Museum of the Belarusian folk art (Raubichi).